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Raymond-Pope is lead author on article in Journal of Clinical Densitometry

Recent Lab News - September 29, 2020 - 4:38pm

Postdoctoral student in the School of Kinesiology, Christiana Raymond-Pope, PhD is the lead author of an article entitled “Assessing agreement of lateral leg muscle and bone composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry” in the Journal of Clinical Densitometry

This study examined a newly developed method of measuring upper leg anterior/posterior compartmental composition using a Hologic Horizon A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unlike a previous study in which agreement of lateral vs frontal leg composition measurements of equal area was reported utilizing the GE Lunar iDXA, agreement was not observed using the Hologic Horizon A DXA scanner. Therefore, lateral view assessment may not be reliably performed on DXA scanner models produced by different manufacturers.

Co-authors of the article include: Don Dengel, PhD, a professor of kinesiology and director of the Laboratory of Integrative Human Physiology (LIHP) and School of Kinesiology graduate, Tyler Bosch, PhD. 

Cerebral blood flow characteristics following hemodialysis initiation in older adults: A prospective longitudinal pilot study using arterial spin labeling imaging.

Recent Publications - September 29, 2020 - 7:20am
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Cerebral blood flow characteristics following hemodialysis initiation in older adults: A prospective longitudinal pilot study using arterial spin labeling imaging.

Neuroimage Clin. 2020 Sep 15;28:102434

Authors: Li X, Slinin YX, Zhang L, Dengel DR, Tupper D, Metzger GJ, Murray AM

Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) characteristics before and after hemodialysis initiation and their longitudinal associations with global cognitive function in older adults.
METHODS: A cohort of 17 older end-stage renal disease patients anticipating standard thrice-weekly hemodialysis and a group of 11 age- and sex-matched healthy control volunteers were recruited for brain perfusion imaging studies using arterial spin labeling. Hemodialysis patients participated in a prospective longitudinal study using brain magnetic resonance imaging and global cognitive assessment using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at two time points: baseline, 2.9 ± 0.9 months before, and follow-up, 6.4 ± 2.4 months after hemodialysis initiation. Healthy controls were imaged once using the same protocol. CBF analyses were performed globally in grey and white matter and regionally in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex. Covariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analyses (significance: p < 0.05; marginal significance: p < 0.1).
RESULTS: At baseline, global and regional CBF was significantly higher in hemodialysis patients than in healthy controls. However, after approximately 6 months of hemodialysis, CBF declined substantially in hemodialysis patients, and became comparable to those in healthy controls. Specifically, in the hemodialysis patients, CBF declined non-significantly globally for grey and white matter and significantly regionally in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex. Marginally significant associations were observed between 3MS scores and regional CBF measurements in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex at baseline and follow-up, and between longitudinal changes.
CONCLUSION: The significant decline in CBF after hemodialysis initiation and the observed association between longitudinal changes in regional CBF and 3MS scores suggest that decreased brain perfusion may contribute to the observed cognitive decline.

PMID: 32980601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Body fat percent assessment between electrical impedance myography and dual X-ray absorptiometry.

Recent Publications - September 29, 2020 - 7:20am
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Body fat percent assessment between electrical impedance myography and dual X-ray absorptiometry.

Am J Hum Biol. 2020 03;32(2):e23330

Authors: Czeck MA, Raymond-Pope CJ, Prescott E, Bisch KL, Dengel DR

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare total and regional body fat percent (BF%) measurements obtained using a handheld electrical impedance myography (EIM) device in comparison to BF% measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
METHODS: Sixty-nine male and female (33 males/36 females; age = 21.9 ± 2.0 years, body mass index = 24.5 ± 3.6 kg/m2 ) college-age individuals participated in this study. Each participant's total and regional (ie, upper arms, upper legs, trunk) BF% was estimated using EIM and DXA. Metallic markers were used to delineate regional boundaries for analysis, including upper arms (biceps/triceps), upper legs (quadriceps/hamstrings), and trunk (abdominal region/low back region). Paired t-tests assessed the accuracy of BF% values estimated from EIM in comparison to BF% measured by DXA.
RESULTS: Observations revealed EIM reported significantly lower BF% for upper left arm (P < .001), upper right arm (P < .001), upper right leg (P = .002), and trunk (P < .001) values. However, no significant differences were observed in total (P = .434) and upper left leg (P = .855) BF% between the two devices.
CONCLUSIONS: This study's observations suggest that, EIM may be an accurate field method for measuring total BF%, but not regional BF%.

PMID: 31566850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

In Internet Dead Zones, Rural Schools Struggle With Distanced Learning

MindShift - September 29, 2020 - 6:46am
Many American schools are back in class via distance learning. It's stressful everywhere but especially in rural districts where most students lack high-speed Internet and cell phone service at home.

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Dengel co-authors article in NeuroImage:Clinical

Recent Lab News - September 28, 2020 - 2:39pm

Donald R. Dengel, PhD, professor of kinesiology and director of the Laboratory of Integrative Human Physiology (LIHP), is a co-author of the article “Cerebral blood flow characteristics following hemodialysis initiation in older adults: A prospective longitudinal pilot study using arterial spin labeling imaging” in the journal NeuroImage: Clinical

The study reported that after 6 months of hemodialysis there was a significant decline in cerebral blood flow. The declines in cerebral blood flow after the start of hemodialysis was associated with changes in Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The data from this study suggests that the decrease in brain perfusion noted in hemodialysis patients may contribute to the observed cognitive decline noted in these patients.

How Encouraging Rough Draft Thinking in Math Class Highlights the Strengths of All Students

MindShift - September 28, 2020 - 3:11am
This is the first article in a two-part series about rough draft math, a concept that applies a process from language arts — creating, discussing and revising rough drafts — to math classrooms. In...

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What It Looks Like When Students Share and Revise Rough Drafts in Math Class 

MindShift - September 28, 2020 - 3:11am
Excerpted from Rough Draft Math: Revising to Learn by Amanda Jansen, copyright © 2020, reproduced with permission of Stenhouse Publishers. www.stenhouse.com This is the second article in a two-part...

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School Attendance In The COVID Era: What Counts As ‘Present’?

MindShift - September 25, 2020 - 3:44am
With millions of students logging in from home, the pandemic has disrupted the traditional school function of making sure students are "in school."

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What the Shortcomings of EdTech Mean for Improving Distance Learning and Schools

MindShift - September 25, 2020 - 2:46am
Educators and parents are in search of tools to help with learning, especially during distance learning. Justin Reich of MIT's Teaching Systems Lab explains in his new book, "Failure to Disrupt: Why...

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Fewer Students Are Going To Community College, Despite High Unemployment

MindShift - September 24, 2020 - 2:32am
Often during a recession, enrollment in community colleges goes up. The first numbers for this fall show a decline — down nearly 8% compared with last year.

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New Dashboard Tracks Coronavirus Cases In Schools Across 47 States

MindShift - September 23, 2020 - 11:02am
The effort, still in its early stages, hopes to track infections and determine the effectiveness of safety measures.

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I’m a Chicago Principal Overwhelmed by ‘What Ifs.’ Here’s How I Got Unstuck.

MindShift - September 22, 2020 - 12:47am
During overwhelming times, one principal relies on her friends, professional network and self-care habits that are not always easy to stick with.

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‘I’m Only 1 Person’: Teachers Feel Torn Between Their Students And Their Own Kids

MindShift - September 18, 2020 - 2:40am
Educators around the U.S. told us they're facing heartbreaking choices between the needs of their students and the needs of their own children.

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A Growing Demand For Wilderness Education May Widen Learning Inequality

MindShift - September 16, 2020 - 3:13am
Parents desperate to get their kids outdoors and offline are choosing wilderness schools for their kids, but poor, urban kids are missing out. Educators in Kingston, N.Y., are trying to change that.

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We’re All New This Year: How Advice for Rookie Teachers Can Help Everyone During Virtual Learning

MindShift - September 15, 2020 - 2:10am
The first year is the hardest for new teachers. Approaching this school year with the guidance one would give a first-year teacher can serve as a helpful tool for navigating the workload and...

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The Pandemic Has Researchers Worried About Teen Suicide

MindShift - September 11, 2020 - 1:09am
Anxiety and depression among teens and youth are getting worse since COVID lockdowns began in March, early studies suggest, and many experts say they fear a corresponding increase in suicide.

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Math Anxiety Is Real. Here’s How To Help Your Child Avoid It

MindShift - September 9, 2020 - 1:41am
Math anxiety is real for kids and adults. But parents can help. The solution goes beyond equations and textbooks.

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How Families are Pushing Schools to Teach Reading Skills More Effectively

MindShift - September 8, 2020 - 2:50am
Families are organizing to advocate for phonics instruction in schools, hoping that different teaching strategies will help their kids finally learn how to read well enough to access the rest of...

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Pandemic’s Emotional Hammer Hits Hard

MindShift - September 3, 2020 - 1:53am
Mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been profound, researchers find. Nearly 25% of Americans are depressed, particularly those who have low incomes and have lost a job or a loved one.

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Positional Body Composition of Female Division I Collegiate Volleyball Players.

Recent Publications - September 2, 2020 - 5:20am
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Positional Body Composition of Female Division I Collegiate Volleyball Players.

J Strength Cond Res. 2020 Aug 27;:

Authors: Bisch KL, Bosch TA, Carbuhn A, Stanforth PR, Oliver JM, Bach CW, Dengel DR

Abstract
Bisch, KL, Bosch, TA, Carbuhn, A, Stanforth, PR, Oliver, JM, Bach, CW, and Dengel, DR. Positional body composition of female division I collegiate volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The primary study objective was to measure positional differences in total and regional body composition among female NCAA Division I collegiate volleyball players using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The secondary objective was to examine normative age curves for fat and lean mass (LM) variables. Ninety female volleyball players from 5 universities received a DXA scan. Athletes were categorized by position: middle blocker (MB = 31), outside hitter (OH = 32), setter (ST = 9), and Libero (LB = 18). Height, body mass, total and regional fat mass (FM), LM, bone mineral density (BMD), and abdominal visceral adipose tissue were measured by DXA. Body mass distribution ratios were calculated. The secondary age analysis included a subset of 153 DXA scans (n = 83, ages 18-21 years). Front row players (i.e., MB and OH) had significantly greater total and regional LM and BMD measures (p < 0.05, all), compared with non-front row players (i.e., LB and ST). Differences in total LM (p < 0.001) were significantly influenced by height. Front row players had consistently lower mass distribution ratios compared with non-front row players (p < 0.05, all). Lean mass index (LMI, p = 0.752) and FM index (FMI, p = 0.392) were not significantly different across ages. Back row players have greater relative upper body mass, whereas mass in front row players is more evenly distributed between the upper and lower body. Bone mineral density differences may be influenced by repeated impact of jumping during the attacking and blocking actions of front row players. Minimal changes in LMI and fluctuations in FMI can be expected across an athlete's career.

PMID: 32868679 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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