Recent Publications

Relationship of Apolipoproteins with Subclinical Cardiovascular Risk in Youth.

January 29, 2021 - 6:21am
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Relationship of Apolipoproteins with Subclinical Cardiovascular Risk in Youth.

J Pediatr. 2020 12;227:199-203.e1

Authors: Czeck MA, Northrop EF, Evanoff NG, Dengel DR, Rudser KD, Kelly AS, Ryder JR

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of apolipoproteins with arterial stiffness and carotid artery structure in children and adolescents.
STUDY DESIGN: A total of 338 children and adolescents (178 female) with a mean age 13.0 ± 2.8 years were examined. Apolipoproteins (AI, AII, B100, CII, CIII, and E) were measured via human apolipoprotein magnetic bead panel. Applanation tonometry determined pulse wave velocity and ultrasound imaging measured carotid intima-media thickness. Dual X-ray absorptiometry measured total body fat percent. Linear regression models were adjusted for Tanner stage, sex, and race with further adjustments for body fat percent. Linear regression models also examined the interaction between Tanner stage and apolipoproteins.
RESULTS: There was a significant positive association between pulse wave velocity and apolipoproteins: AI (0.015 m/s/10 μg/mL [CI 0.005-0.026], P = .003), AII (0.036 m/s/10 μg/mL [0.017-0.056], P < .001), B100 (0.009 m/s/10 μg/mL [0.002-0.016], P = .012), E (0.158 m/s/10 μg/mL [0.080-0.235], P < .001), and CIII:CII (0.033/μg/mL [0.014-0.052], P < .001). After we added body fat percent to the models, pulse wave velocity (PWV) remained positively associated with greater levels of apolipoproteins: AI, AII, B100, E, and CIII:CII. Both with and without the adjustment for body fat percent, there were no significant associations between any apolipoprotein and carotid intima-media thickness. There were no significant interactions between Tanner stage and apolipoproteins.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that greater levels of apolipoprotein AII, E, and CIII:CII are associated with increased arterial stiffness in children and adolescents, both with and without adjusting for percent body fat. These specific apolipoproteins may be useful as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

PMID: 32795477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Relationship of Circulating Endothelial Cells With Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents

December 29, 2020 - 5:00am

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Jan 5;10(1):e018092. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.018092. Epub 2020 Dec 29.


Background Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) reflect early changes in endothelial health; however, the degree to which CEC number and activation is related to adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in youth is not well described. Methods and Results Youth in this study (N=271; aged 8-20 years) were classified into normal weight (body mass index [BMI] percentage <85th; n=114), obesity (BMI percentage ≥95th to <120% of the 95th; n=63), and severe obesity (BMI percentage ≥120% of the 95th; n=94) catagories. CEC enumeration was determined using immunohistochemical examination of buffy coat smears and activated CEC (percentage of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression) was assessed using immunofluorescent staining. Cardiovascular risk factors included measures of body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, carotid artery intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity. Linear regression models examined associations between CEC number and activation with BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. CEC number did not differ among BMI classes (P>0.05). Youth with severe obesity had a higher degree of CEC activation compared with normal weight youth (8.3%; 95% CI, 1.1-15.6 [P=0.024]). Higher CEC number was associated with greater body fat percentage (0.02 per percentage; 95% CI, 0.00-0.03 [P=0.020]) and systolic blood pressure percentile (0.01 per percentage; 95% CI, 0.00-0.01 [P=0.035]). Higher degree of CEC activation was associated with greater visceral adipose tissue (5.7% per kg; 95% CI, 0.4-10.9 [P=0.034]) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.11% per mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.01-0.21 [P=0.039]). Conclusions Methods of CEC quantification are associated with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors and may potentially reflect accelerated atherosclerosis as early as childhood.

PMID:33372524 | DOI:10.1161/JAHA.120.018092

Correction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Female Athletes Exhibit Relative Muscle Dysfunction After Return to Sport.

November 20, 2020 - 2:22am
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Correction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Female Athletes Exhibit Relative Muscle Dysfunction After Return to Sport.

Int J Sports Med. 2020 Nov 18;:

Authors: Raymond-Pope CJ, Dengel DR, Fitzgerald JS, Nelson BJ, Bosch TA

PMID: 33207374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Association of Compartmental Leg Lean Mass Measured by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry With Force Production.

November 18, 2020 - 6:19am
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Association of Compartmental Leg Lean Mass Measured by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry With Force Production.

J Strength Cond Res. 2020 Jun;34(6):1690-1699

Authors: Raymond-Pope CJ, Dengel DR, Fitzgerald JS, Bosch TA

Raymond-Pope, CJ, Dengel, DR, Fitzgerald, JS, and Bosch, TA. Association of compartmental leg lean mass measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry with force production. J Strength Cond Res 34(6): 1690-1699, 2020-We recently reported a novel method for measuring upper leg anterior/posterior compartmental composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of this method with measures of muscle-specific and explosive strength and to compare this method with traditional dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of total and upper leg masses. We hypothesize this method will be related to muscle-specific strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry and explosive strength measured by jump mechanography. Nineteen NCAA Division I college athletes (10 women; age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m; body mass = 73.8 ± 17.0 kg) underwent 3 DXA scans (1 total body, 2 lateral) and knee extension/flexion strength assessment using isokinetic dynamometry at 3 velocities (60, 120, and 180°·s). A subset of 10 participants also completed a squat jump on a force platform on a different day. Pearson correlations compared 3 separate lean soft-tissue mass (LSTM) regions of interest (total leg, upper leg, and compartmental leg) with (a) isokinetic peak torque and (b) squat jump height, peak force, and peak and average rate of force development. Compartmental leg LSTM demonstrated similar correlations (r = 0.437-0.835) with peak torque in comparison with total leg (r = 0.463-0.803) and upper leg (r = 0.449-0.795) LSTM. Summed right and left total leg (r = 0.830-0.940), total upper leg (r = 0.824-0.953), and anterior (r = 0.582-0.798) and posterior (r = 0.750-0.951) compartmental leg LSTM demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations with all squat jump variables, particularly jump height (p < 0.05). The lateral segmentation DXA scanning method demonstrated feasibility in assessing compartmental leg LSTM in relation with isokinetic and squat jump measurements-important outcomes when examining an athlete's response to training and rehabilitation.

PMID: 29878983 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]